This change has also shifted people’s interest in movement from transportation to mobility.
In other words, while transportation focuses on the carrying of cargo,
mobility focuses on the freedom of movement that people have.

- Towards New Mobility Paradigms -

Considering the development of the transportation industry,
it seems appropriate to move towards the coexistence of public transportation
and new mobility services within a MaaS system in urban areas
where public transportation already has a significant presence.

- Public-Private Cooperation for Mobility Transformation -

As an industry’s value-chain fragments and technologies intersect,
the release of innovative technologies and products alters the market and competitive landscape,
highlighting the limitations of focusing solely on hardware for sustainable growth.

- Socioeconomic Impacts of Mobility Transformation -

In 2020, the South Korean government unveiled its visionary New Deal plan,
which included ambitious goals for the expansion of data-, network-,
and AI-driven smart mobility services.

Building on this framework, in 2022, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,
and Transport (MOLIT) announced a significant shift from supplier-focused transportation policies
to a more user-oriented approach to mobility.

- Legal and Institutional Improvements in South Korea -

Autonomous and connected driving can also contribute to the mobility transition if the momentum created by
the new legal framework in Germany is utilized and the new technology is developed for innovative mobility services.
Public transport will benefit from this,
and private transportation can be reduced.

However, international regulations are required to make autonomous driving accessible across national borders
and thus create an incentive for manufacturers to drive technical development forward even faster.

- Legal and Institutional Improvements in Germany -

The electrification of transport is a key technology in the mobility transition,
particularly in passenger transport. Electrification is also important in freight transport
using trucks, although discussions about which technologies to use in certain applications
are not yet complete. Autonomous driving technology has promising
applications for the mobility transition.

- Technological Aspects of Mobility Transformation in Germany -

The National Basic Plan for Carbon Neutrality and Green Growth set a goal of supplying
4.2 million BEVs and 0.3 million FCEVs by 2030. Therefore, considering the policy goals
announced by the South Korean government, electrification of road
transportation is expected to progress rapidly.

- Technological Aspects of Mobility Transformation in South Korea -

Munich faces the same mobility challenges that many other metropolitan regions face.
It is the most densely populated city in Germnay and the fast growing nationanwide,
with more than 1.5 million inhabitants in the urban area and more than six million
inhabitants in the metropolitan region.
Munich also is Germany’s “Stauhauptstadt”
with regular congestion leading to resident wasting an average of 51 hours per year in traffic.

- Transforming Mobility in Germany through the Regional Innovation Cluster “MCube” -

Munich’s Mobility Plan addresses three specific challenges: population growth; health
and environmental protection; and digitalization and networking.
The overall strategy for transportation and mobility in Munich, “Mobilitätsstrategie 2035”
(translated as Mobility Strategy 2035), was approved by the City Council in 2021.
The strategy marks a shift from considering the mobility system’s
effectiveness only in terms of automotive mobility toward enabling mobility
for everyone independent of the use of individual cars.

- Transforming Mobility in Germany through the Regional Innovation Cluster “MCube” -